Stock Markets

Capital Markets in general

Capital markets consists of Primary market and Secondary market.

Primary market is the market where a security is sold when it is first issued. The proceeds of selling the securities in a primary market go directly to the company issuing the securities. For example, a stock IPO (initial public offering).

Secondary market
is the market where securities are traded through an exchange or over-the-counter subsequest to a primary market offering. The proceeds from trading in a secondary market go to the selling dealers and investors. Secondary market is far more important than the primary market.

World Stock Exchange

A stock exchange is a marketplace where buyers and sellers of stocks meet to trade with each other and where stock prices are established based on the supply and demand. It is the driving force for the secondary market.

Exchanges Country Year Founded Regulator Market Cap Average Daily Volume Number of companies listed
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) U.S. 1792 SEC $21.2 trils. 1.6 billion shares/day 2800
National Association of Securities Dealers automated Quotation System (NASDAQ) U.S. 1971 SEC   2 billion shares/day 3200
American Stock Exchange (AMEX) U.S.   SEC   70 million shares/day  
Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) Canada 1852 Self $1.8 trillion 64.2 billion/year 1537
TSX Venture Exchange Canada   Self $34.0 billion 21.5 billion/year 2221
Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) Japan 1949 MoF 11.5 Billion yen   1800
London Stock Exchange (LSE) UK 1773 SFA     3000
Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKEX) Hong Kong 1891 Self      
Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) China 1990   RMB 2.6 trillion   848
Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE) China     RMB 1 trillion (US$ 122 billion) 600,000 deals (US$ 807 million)/day 596


Stock Indexes
Dow Jones Industrial Average DJIA The most prominent stock index in the world.
Russell 2000    

Market Regulators

SEC (US. Securities and Exchange Commission) : Administers federal securities laws, rules and regulations for securities industry.

Canadian Seurities Institute (CSI)
Investment Dealers Association (IDA): Canadian investment industry's national trade association and largest self-regulatory organization.


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